WCO PICARD Conference 2021

“Customs bolstering Recovery, Renewal and Resilience for a sustainable supply chain” – 16th Annual WCO PICARD Conference

Bildschirmfoto 2023-11-13 um 18.52.26

The 16th annual WCO PICARD Conference was held in a hybrid format from 9 to 10 December 2021 at the World Customs Organization (WCO) Headquarters in Brussels and was organised by the WCO with an additional donor support by the Korea Customs Service.

Conference Summary

For the first time, the PICARD Conference was held in a hybrid format due to the COVID-19 pandemic: Besides the participants having been able to attend online, several high-level speakers from academic, governmental, and private sector entities and think-tanks could present their research in presence again. They also were able to interact and discuss vital policy issues which impact Customs and international trade once more.

In accordance with the WCO’s theme for the year 2021 – “Customs bolstering Recovery, Renewal and Resilience for a sustainable supply chain” – the Conference was the opportunity for experts and academics to discuss original and evidence-based contributions on the following topics:

  • Economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and Customs measures;
  • Lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic for Customs;
  • Data analytics; and
  • Other topics of interest for the Customs community, including emerging technologies and digitalization, the circular economy and a greener approach to economic recovery, security, integrity, border management and cooperation with border agencies.

The conference kicked off with opening remarks by Dr. Kunio Mikuriya, Secretary General of the World Customs Organization, followed by a key note speech by Prof. Grégoire Rota Graziosi, Professor of Economics and Director, CERDI-CNRS-UCA at CERDI Center for Studies and Research on International Development.

The presentations on day one could be attended via two tracks: Within track one the participants predominantly were able to elaborate on data analytics, e.g. on customs fraud detection, cross-border flows and blockchain technology. Another focus was laid on the status quo and possible enhancements of risk management, furthermore in the light of artificial intelligence.Within both tracks participants could follow fascinating presentations regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain and cross-border trade under the pressure of the COVID-19 pandemic. The speeches provided an excellent basis for discussion on further challenges and facilities. The second track especially focused on value chain improvements in order to establish a continuously more sustainable circular economy. In this regard the attendees discussed on necessary digital and legal infrastructure as well as possible incentives for economic operators.

On the second day two round table discussions took place. Whilst six panelists first discussed on Border Security, especially considering several comparative and regional perspectives, eight panelists were able to discuss on Education and Training.

As in previous years, the 2021 PICARD Conference was attended by a number of INCU members and affiliates from around the word who actively participated and delivered presentations, keynote addresses and led several panel discussions. The following INCU members and/or representatives of INCU Institutional Members and Affiliates delivered presentations and speeches at the conference:

  • Grégoire Rota Graziosi (Centre for Studies and Research on International Development – CERDI, France)
  • Shilu Zhao (Shanghai Customs College, China)
  • Leonie Zappel (Brunswick European Law School, Germany)
  • Yao-Hua Tan (Delft University of Technology; Erasmus University, Netherlands)
  • Martijn Schippers (Erasmus School of Law, Netherlands)
  • Toni Männistö (Cross-border Research Association, Switzerland)
  • Juha Hintsa (Cross-border Research Association, Switzerland)
  • Dennis Ndongo (Murdoch University, Australia)
  • Jenia Peteva (European Commission, Belgium)
  • Mikhail Kashubsky (Head of Secretariat of INCU; Centre for Customs and Excise Studies, Charles Sturt University, Australia)
  • David Widdowson (President of INCU; Charles Sturt University, Australia)
  • Andrew Grainger (Management Committee of INCU; Trade Facilitation Consulting, United Kingdom)
  • Hans-Michael Wolffgang (Vice-President of INCU; University of Muenster, Germany)
  • Samuel Bautista (Management Committee of INCU; Academy of Developmental Logistics, Philippines)
  • Kerstin Harden (University of Muenster, Germany)

The 2021 PICARD Conference materials including presentations, speaker biographies and photos, are now available on the INCU website. Pictures of this year’s conference can be found at the bottom of this page.

Conference Documents

Conference Presentations

The following presentations were delivered at the conference:

Conference Presentations

Track 1: Knowledge Sharing via Domain Adaption in Customs Fraud Detection Meeyoung Cha,

Sundong Kim

Track 1: AI HS Code Recommendation Modeling Seon Yeong Han EN
Track 1: Geospital Analysis of Cross-Border Flows Dan Bouga,

Nicolas Saporiti

Track 1: Multi-Dimensional Analysis Framework for Data Analytics Developments Mathieu Labare,

Jonathan Migeotte

Track 1: The disruptive innovation of blockchain in Customs Mercedes Gómez Chávez,

Yésika Chura Canahua

Track 1: An Assessment of Customs Risk Management Practices and Limitations in Ethiopian Customs Commission Aemiro Melaku Gashie EN
Track 1: The Covid-19 Vaccine Supply Chain – Lessons Learned from a Logistics Perspective Sarah Meinert EN
Track 1: Informal Cross-border Trade between Mozambique and South Africa: responses and challenges to the impact of Covid-19 Fulgêncio Seda,

Amélia Muendane

Track 1: Fraud in the Pandemic María Elena Chávez Solís EN
Track 1: Taxation in Fragile States – A Somalia Example Gael Raballand EN
Track 2: The Innovative Practice of Promoting the Development of Cross-border E-commerce by China Customs under the Background of Covid-19 Pandemic Shilu Zhao EN
Track 2: The Impact of Covid-19 on Customs Administration Performance and Structure Abolfazl Akbarpour,

Samieh Darsareh

Track 2: Export prohibitions and restrictions under Article XI:2(a) GATT 1994 – An effective measure to curb the spread of Covid-19? Leonie Zappel EN
Track 2: Digital Infrastructures for Circular Economy Governance Boriana Rukanova  EN
Track 2: Compensation for Shipment of Waste – not worth it? Julia Horning,

Martijn Schippers

Track 2: The Circular Economy and International Trade: Opportunities for action in the World Trade Organization Christophe Bellmann EN
Track 2: Circular Economy approaches and scales of analysis in the Global value chains Manuel Morales EN
Track 2: Circular Economy, An Overview of the trade at the Macro Level Arnaud Diemer,

Cécile Batisse

Track 2: Circular Economy policy in the European Union Claudiu-Eduard Nedelciu EN
Track 2: Customs Innovations for Fighting Fraud and Trafficking in Cross-border Parcel Flows Toni Männistö, Juha Hintsa,

Cristiano Morini

Track 2: Addressing the Challenges Facing One-Stop Border Posts in Africa: Lessons from Chirundu Dennis Ndonga EN
Track 2: Joint Procurement, Customs Control Equipment Instrument, Green Innovation Collaboration Jenia Peteva EN
Track 2: The Border Labyrinth: Information Technology and Trade Alejandro Graziano EN
Presentation by the IMF on its new book – Customs matters: A Roadmap to Strengthen Customs Administration in Changing World Tadatsugu Matsudaira EN
Introduction of INCU (International Network of Customs Universities) Mikhail Kashubsky EN
Round table discussion on Education and Training: IHED: A bridge between research and development actors Céline de QuatreBarbes EN
Round table discussion on Education and Training: SKKU Data Analytics Scholarship PROGRAM Jong seo Chai EN
Round table discussion on Education and Training: Customs debt law under the Union CUstoms Code (UCC) and the concept of the ‘economic theoriy of customs’ – Approach, method and main results Kerstin Harden EN
Round table discussion on Education and Training: Connection between Goods and Services and their treatment in WTO Law Hanns-Thilo von Spankeren EN
The Effectiveness of Customs Risk Management Selectivity Process on Import Trade; The Case of Ethiopian Customs Commission (Time Series Big Data Analysis) Mengistu Bawoke EN